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Title: Bread From Heaven: The Manna Mystery Solved

Author: Gerald E. Aardsma, Ph.D.

Date of Publication: 2023

Subject Area: Biblical history; the Exodus; Manna.

Description: This book will show you the solution to the mystery of manna. By the time you have finished reading it, you will know what physical substance manna is, and you will be shown how you can view and handle and taste for yourself what millions of Israeilites ate in the desert for forty years long.

From the Back Cover: Is the biblical account of manna mythological or historical? In this ground-breaking book, Dr. Aardsma presents the truth about the substance the Israelites called "manna." You will discover solid answers to questions such as: How did manna appear on the ground every morning? Why was the manna absent on the Sabath? What caused the manna to spoil overnight? What was the chemical structure of this substance? How could the manna have sustained millions of people? You will discover that the biblical account of manna is not mythological. Manna was a naturally occurring phenomenon which God provided for the Israelites during their years in the wilderness.

Number of pages: 111.

ISBN: 978-1-7372151-2-7.


Table of Contents

   List of Tables 7   
   List of Figures 9   
   Dedication 11   
   Acknowledgments 13   
   1 Introduction 15   
   2 The Biblical Historical Record of Manna 19   
   3 Constructing a Theory of Manna 23   
     3.1 A Pause for Piety 24   
     3.2 The Sorry State of Natural Explanations of Manna to the Present Time 27   
     3.3 A Better Way 30   
       3.3.1 Sabbath Air 30   
       3.3.2 The Mystery Begins to Unravel 34   
       3.3.3 The Stockyard Gases Theory of Manna 35   
     3.4 Conclusion 35   
   4 A First Attempt at Making Manna 37   
     4.1 The Affinity of Ammonia for Water 38   
     4.2 Acid-Based Reactions and Manna 39   
       4.2.1 Acetic Acid 39   
       4.2.2 Propionic Acid 41   
       4.2.3 Butyric Acid 44   
     4.3 Conclusion 44   
   5 Improving the Stockyard Gases Theory of Manna 47   
     5.1 Including the Desert 47   
       5.1.1 Desert Soil Salts 48   
     5.2 Efflorescence 49   
     5.3 Conclusion 51   
   6 Back to Making Manna 53   
     6.1 Central Negev Cations 53   
       6.1.1 The Dominance of Sodium in Cation Exchange with Ammonium 54   
     6.2 Sodium and Acetate 55   
       6.2.1 The Melting Point of Sodium Acetate Trihydrate 56   
       6.2.2 The Taste of Sodium Acetate Trihydrate 58   
     6.3 Other Ingredients 60   
       6.3.1 Organic Acids 60   
       6.3.2 Miscellanious Trace Substances 60   
       6.3.3 Sodium Hydroxide 61   
     6.4 Recipe for Manna Synthesis 61   
     6.5 Residual Evaluations 63   
       6.5.1 Bdellium 64   
       6.5.2 Foul Deductions 66   
     6.6 Conclusion 67   
   7 Further Confirmation: Manna Nutrition 69   
     7.1 The Provision of Manna 70   
     7.2 The Food Category of Manna 71   
     7.3 Like Coriander Seed 72   
     7.4 Manna Calories 74   
     7.5 Conclusion 75   
   8 Further Confirmation: Long-Term Manna Consumption 77   
     8.1 Sodium Consumption 78   
     8.2 Conclusion 80   
   9 Conclusion 81   
     9.1 Panoramic Summary 81   
     9.2 The Mastermind 82   
   Appendices 87   
   A Negev Desert Climate at the Time of the Exodus 89   
   B Mathematical Model for Manna Production 93   
     B.1 Problem 93   
     B.2 Solution 93   
       B.2.1 References 93   
       B.2.2 Concentrations in Dew at the Surface of the Ground 94   
       B.2.3 Concentrations in Manna Solution 99   
     B.3 Conclusion 101   
   Index 103   

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